Depending upon how these "switches" and "inverters" are arranged in integrated circuits we are able to obtain "logic blocks" to perform various tasks. In figure 2 we look at some of the most basic logic blocks. In the first set of switches A, B, and C they are arranged in "series" so that for the input to reach the output all the switches must be closed. This may be considered an "AND-GATE".

In the second set of switches A, B, and C they are arranged in "parallel" so that for any input to reach the output any one of the switches may be closed. This may be considered an "OR-GATE".

These are considered the basic building blocks in digital logic. If we added "inverters" to either of those blocks, called "gates", then we achieve a "NAND-GATE" and a "NOR-GATE" respectively.

Here in figure 3 we examine the digital basics in schematic form. Now here we have depicted four major logic blocks AND-GATE, NAND-GATE, OR-GATE and NOR-GATE plus the inverter. Firstly the "1's" and the "0's" or otherwise known as the "ones" and "zeros". A "1" is a HIGH voltage (usually the voltage supply) and the "0" is no voltage or ground potential. Other people prefer designating "H" and "L" for high and low instead of the "1's" and the "0's". Stick with which system you feel most comfortable. Several interesting points emerge here. Of interest to the next section on binary numbers is the pattern of all the inputs for each logic block. Not only are they identical but, for only two inputs A and B there are four possible output situations which are called "states". These are digital basics. There actually can be many numbers of inputs. An eight input NAND-GATE is a common and quite useful digital logic block. Next of particular interest is if you study them very carefully, that for the very identical inputs, each of these logic blocks gives us a totally different output result. Compare them. Finally for the same inputs the NOR-GATE outputs are the direct opposite to the AND-GATE outputs while the OR-GATE outputs are the direct opposite to the NAND-GATE outputs.
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